In the century following the death of Copernicus and the publication of his theory of the solar system, two scientists—Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei—made indelible imprints on the study of astronomy. Contemporaries, they were aware of each other's work and corresponded from time to time about their theories. Each achieved fame for his discoveries and, in his own way, made great strides in popularizing the Copernican viewpoint, yet in their approaches to astronomy they were as different as night and day. Kepler (Figure 2.9), a German mathematician and astronomer, was a pure theorist. His groundbreaking work that so clarified our knowledge of planetary motion was based almost entirely on the observations of others (partly because of Kepler's own poor eyesight). In contrast, Galileo was in many ways the first "modern" astronomer. He used emerging technology, in the form of the telescope, to achieve new insights into the universe. We will study some of Galileo's accomplishments, and their consequences, in Section 2.5.
Figure 2.9 Johannes Kepler (1571—1630).
Kepler's work was based on an extensive collection of data compiled by Tycho Brahe (1546—1601), Kepler's employer and arguably one of the greatest observational astronomers that has ever lived. Tycho, as he is often called, was both an eccentric aristocrat and a skillful observer. Born in Denmark, he was educated at some of the best universities in Europe, where he studied astrology, alchemy, and medicine. Most of his observations, which predated the invention of the telescope by several decades, were made at his own observatory, named Uraniborg, in Denmark (Figure 2.10). There, using instruments of his own design, Tycho maintained meticulous and accurate records of the stars, planets, and other noteworthy celestial events.
Figure 2.10 Tycho Brahe in his observatory Uraniborg, on the island of Hveen, in Denmark.
In 1597, having fallen out of favor with the Danish court, Tycho moved to Prague, which happens to be fairly close to Graz, in Austria, where Kepler lived and worked. Kepler joined Tycho in Prague in 1600. There Kepler was put to work trying to find a theory that could explain Brahe's planetary data. When Tycho died a year later, Kepler inherited not only Brahe's position as Imperial Mathematician of the Holy Roman Empire (then located in Eastern Europe) but also his priceless possession: the accumulated observations of the planets, spanning several decades. Tycho's observations, though made with the naked eye, were nevertheless of very high quality. In most cases, his measured positions of stars and planets were accurate to within about 1°. Kepler set to work seeking a unifying principle to explain in detail the motions of the planets, without the need for epicycles. The effort was to occupy much of the remaining 29 years of his life.
Kepler had already accepted the heliocentric picture of the solar system. His goal was to find a simple and elegant description of the solar system, within the Copernican framework, that fit Tycho's complex mass of detailed observations. In the end, he found it necessary to abandon Copernicus's original simple idea of circular planetary orbits. However, an even greater simplicity emerged as a result. After long years studying Brahe's planetary data, and after many false starts and blind alleys, Kepler developed the laws of planetary motion that now bear his name.
Kepler determined the shape of each planet's orbit by triangulation—not from different points on Earth, but from different points on Earth's orbit, using observations made at many different times of the year. (Sec. 1.9) By using a portion of Earth's orbit as a baseline, Kepler was able to measure the relative sizes of the other planetary orbits. Noting where the planets were on successive nights, he found the speeds at which the planets move. We do not know how many geometric shapes Kepler tried for the orbits before he hit upon the correct one. His difficult task was made even more complex because he had to determine Earth's own orbit, too. Nevertheless, he eventually succeeded in summarizing the motions of all the known planets, including Earth, in just three laws, the laws of planetary motion.
Kepler's first law has to do with the shapes of the planetary orbits:
The orbital paths of the planets are elliptical (not circular), with the Sun at one focus.
An ellipse is simply a flattened circle. Figure 2.11 illustrates a means of constructing an ellipse using a piece of string and two thumbtacks. Each point at which the string is pinned is called a focus (plural: foci) of the ellipse. The long axis of the ellipse, containing the two foci, is known as the major axis. Half the length of this long axis is referred to as the semimajor axis; it is a measure of the ellipse's size. The eccentricity of the ellipse is the ratio of the distance between the foci to the length of the major axis. The length of the semimajor axis and the eccentricity are all we need to describe the size and shape of a planet's orbital path (see More Precisely 21). A circle is a special kind of ellipse in which the two foci happen to coincide, so the eccentricity is zero. The semimajor axis of a circle is simply its radius.
Figure 2.11 Any ellipse can be drawn with the aid of a string, a pencil, and two thumbtacks. The wider the separation of the foci, the more elongated, or eccentric, is the ellipse. In the special case where the two foci are at the same place, the drawn curve is a circle.
In fact, no planet's elliptical orbit is nearly as elongated as the one shown in Figure 2.11. With two exceptions (the paths of Mercury and Pluto), planetary orbits in our solar system have such small eccentricities that our eyes would have trouble distinguishing them from true circles. Only because the orbits are so nearly circular were the Ptolemaic and Copernican models able to come as close as they did to describing reality.
Kepler's substitution of elliptical for circular orbits was no small advance. It amounted to abandoning an aesthetic bias—the Aristotelian belief in the perfection of the circle—that had governed astronomy since Greek antiquity. Even Galileo Galilei, not known for his conservatism in scholarly matters, clung to the idea of circular motion and never accepted that the planets move on elliptical paths.
Kepler's second law, illustrated in Figure 2.12, addresses the speed at which a planet traverses different parts of its orbit:
An imaginary line connecting the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas of the ellipse in equal intervals of time.
Figure 2.12 A diagram illustrating Kepler's second law: Equal areas are swept out in equal intervals of time. The three shaded areas (A, B, and C) are equal. Note that an object would travel the length of each of the three arrows in the same amount of time. Therefore, planets move faster when closer to the Sun.
While orbiting the Sun, a planet traces the arcs labeled A, B, and C in Figure 2.12 in equal times. Notice, however, that the distance traveled by the planet along arc C is greater than the distance traveled along arc A or arc B. Because the time is the same and the distance is different, the speed must vary. When a planet is close to the Sun, as in sector C, it moves much faster than when farther away, as in sector A.
By taking into account the relative speeds and positions of the planets in their elliptical orbits about the Sun, Kepler's first two laws explained the variations in planetary brightness and some observed peculiar nonuniform motions that could not be accommodated within the assumption of circular motion, even with the inclusion of epicycles. Gone at last were the circles within circles that rolled across the sky. Kepler's modification of the Copernican theory to allow the possibility of elliptical orbits both greatly simplified the model of the solar system and at the same time provided much greater predictive accuracy than had previously been possible. Note, by the way, that these laws are not restricted to planets. They apply to any orbiting object. Spy satellites, for example, move very rapidly as they swoop close to Earth's surface not because they are propelled with powerful onboard rockets but because their highly eccentric orbits are governed by Kepler's laws.
Kepler published his first two laws in 1609, stating that he had proved them only for the orbit of Mars. Ten years later, he extended them to all the thenknown planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) and added a third law relating the size of a planet's orbit to its sidereal orbital period—the time needed for the planet to complete one circuit around the Sun. Kepler's third law states that
The square of a planet's orbital period is proportional to the cube of its semimajor axis.
This law becomes particularly simple when we choose the (Earth) year as our unit of time and the astronomical unit as our unit of length. One astronomical unit (A.U.) is the semimajor axis of Earth's orbit around the Sun—essentially the average distance between Earth and the Sun. Like the light year, the astronomical unit is custommade for the vast distances encountered in astronomy. Using these units for time and distance, we can write Kepler's third law for any planet as
,
where P is the planet's sidereal orbital period, and ais the length of its semimajor axis. The law implies that a planet's "year" Pincreases more rapidly than does the size of its orbit a. For example, Earth, with an orbital semimajor axis of 1 A.U., has an orbital period of 1 Earth year. The planet Venus, orbiting at a distance of roughly 0.7 A.U., takes only 0.6 Earth years—about 225 days—to complete one circuit. By contrast, Saturn, almost 10 A.U. out, takes considerably more than 10 Earth years—in fact, nearly 30 years—to orbit the Sun just once.
Table 2.1 presents basic data describing the orbits of the nine planets now known. Renaissance astronomers knew these properties for the innermost six planets and used them to construct the currently accepted heliocentric model of the solar system. The second column presents each planet's orbital semimajor axis, measured in astronomical units; the third column gives the orbital period, in Earth years. The fourth column lists the planets' orbital eccentricities. For purposes of verifying Kepler's third law, the rightmost column lists the ratio P^{2}/a^{3}. As we have just seen, in the units used in the table, the third law implies that this number should equal 1 in all cases.
TABLE 2.1 Some Solar System Dimensions  

The main points to be grasped from Table 2.1 are these: (1) with the exception of Mercury and Pluto, the planets' orbits are very nearly circular (that is, their eccentricities are close to zero), and (2) the farther a planet is from the Sun, the greater is its orbital period, in precise agreement with Kepler's third law to within the fourdigit accuracy of the numbers in the table. (The small but significant deviations of P^{2}/a^{3} from 1 in the cases of Uranus and Neptune are caused by the gravitational attraction between those two planets; see Chapter 13.) For example, in the case of Pluto, verify for yourself that 39.53^{3}= 248.6^{2} (at least, to three significant figures). Most important, note that Kepler's laws are obeyed by all the known planets, not just by the six on which he based his conclusions.